Uruguay Round Agreement
However, the EC and other countries have been reluctant to adopt such an approach. In particular, THE COMMUNITY objected to significant reductions in its export subsidies. Discussions continued in the hope that an agreement could be reached by December 1990, the initial date of the conclusion of the Uruguay Round; but the text presented there was rejected by the EC and the deadline came and went without agreement being reached. It was not until 1991 that negotiators finally agreed on a consensus in which countries would agree on concessions in each of the following three areas: it was nevertheless four years before ministers agreed to launch the new round. They did so in September 1986 in Punta del Este, Uruguay. They eventually agreed to a negotiating agenda that covered virtually all outstanding trade policy issues. Discussions are expected to extend the trading system to several new areas, including trade in services and intellectual property, and to reform trade in sensitive agricultural and textile sectors. All original GATT articles were reviewed. It was the largest negotiating mandate ever agreed, and ministers gave themselves four years to conclude it. The agreement strengthens the obligation for the importing country to establish a clear causal link between dumped imports and harm to domestic industry. The review of dumped imports on the industry concerned must include an assessment of all relevant economic factors relating to the situation of the industry concerned. The agreement confirms the existing interpretation of the term “domestic industry.” Subject to certain exceptions, the “domestic industry” refers to domestic producers as a whole of similar products or to those whose macro-economic production of products accounts for a significant share of total domestic production of these products.
1.2.4 The obscure draft and cap reform: paving the way for an agreement The round was due to end in December 1990, but the United States and the EU were divided on agricultural trade reform and decided to extend the negotiations.  Finally, in November 1992, the United States and the EU settled most of their differences in an agreement known as the Blair House, and on 15 April 1994, the agreement was signed by ministers from most of the 123 participating governments at a meeting in Marrakech, Morocco.  The agreement created the World Trade Organization, which came into force on January 1, 1995 to replace the GATT system.  It is widely regarded as the most profound institutional reform of the global trading system since the creation of the GATT.  This agreement will extend and clarify the agreement on technical barriers to trade reached during the Tokyo Round. The aim is to ensure that technical negotiations and standards, as well as testing and certification procedures, do not create unnecessary barriers to trade. However, it recognizes that countries have the right to provide protection at a level they deem appropriate. B for example for human life, animal or plant, or for health or the environment, and that they should not be prevented from taking the necessary measures to ensure compliance with these levels of protection.